Lanham Act Section 43

Decoding the Lanham Act

This is more of a reference guide than a blog post, but it will be one of the most helpful resources you will encounter.  The Lanham Act is the series of statutes governing federal trademark law.  Also known as the Trademark Act of 1946, it was named after its chief proponent: Frederick “Fritz” Garland Lanham, a member of the House of Representatives from Texas.  In what I consider a pleasantly surprising coincidence, Lanham attended Vanderbilt University.  Vanderbilt has been producing learned men for centuries, but I digress.

The Lanham Act is referenced heavily throughout trademark law, from trademark examining attorneys during prosecution to courts during litigation.  However, many resources frequently identify specific provisions of the Lanham Act using their precodified names (Section 1, Section 2, etc.) without identifying the location of those provisions in the United States Code.  As a result, those references can be confusing—if not totally useless—unless you are a trademark attorney who reviews the Lanham Act regularly.

To save you time and frustration, I have created a Lanham Act reference guide for you.  The below chart maps the Lanham Act’s provisions to their locations in the United States Code.  Rather than blindly researching, for example, what your examining attorney means by “Section 2(d) refusal,” you can visit this list, click on Section 2 or 15 U.S.C. § 1052, and read the statute that prohibits registration of marks that are likely to be confused with marks already registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).  Here’s an excerpt of Section 2:

“No trademark . . . shall be refused registration on the principal register . . . unless it—

. . .

(d) Consists of or comprises a mark which so resembles a mark registered in the Patent and Trademark Office . . . as to be likely, when used on or in connection with the goods of the applicant, to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive . . . .”

The USPTO has created a more voluminous PDF version of this guide containing not only the statutory references shown below, but also the actual text of each statute.  You may view and download that PDF at this USPTO.gov link.  But if all you want to do is view a provision or two of the Lanham Act to try and get your bearings, it is probably easiest to scroll down and click.  You might as well even bookmark this page.

Enjoy, and share with someone who will find it helpful.  Also, did you notice that the title of this post is a double entendre?

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Lanham Act Topic Federal Statute
Title I – The Principal Register
Section 1 Application for registration; verification 15 U.S.C. § 1051
Section 2 Trademarks registrable on principal register; concurrent registration 15 U.S.C. § 1052
Section 3 Service marks registrable 15 U.S.C. § 1053
Section 4 Collective marks and certification marks registrable 15 U.S.C. § 1054
Section 5 Use by related companies affecting validity and registration 15 U.S.C. § 1055
Section 6 Disclaimer of unregistrable matter 15 U.S.C. § 1056
Section 7 Certificates of registration 15 U.S.C. § 1057
Section 8 Duration, affidavits and fees 15 U.S.C. § 1058
Section 9 Renewal of registration 15 U.S.C. § 1059
Section 10 Assignment 15 U.S.C. § 1060
Section 11 Execution of acknowledgments and verifications 15 U.S.C. § 1061
Section 12 Publication 15 U.S.C. § 1062
Section 13 Opposition to registration 15 U.S.C. § 1063
Section 14 Cancellation of registration 15 U.S.C. § 1064
Section 15 Incontestability of right to use mark under certain conditions 15 U.S.C. § 1065
Section 16 Interference; declaration by Director 15 U.S.C. § 1066
Section 17 Interference, opposition, and proceedings for concurrent use registration or for cancellation; notice; Trademark Trial and Appeal Board 15 U.S.C. § 1067
Section 18 Action of Director in interference, opposition, and proceedings for concurrent use registration or for cancellation 15 U.S.C. § 1068
Section 19 Application of equitable principles in inter partes proceedings 15 U.S.C. § 1069
Section 20 Appeals to Trademark Trial and Appeal Board from decisions of examiners 15 U.S.C. § 1070
Section 21 Appeal to courts 15 U.S.C. § 1071
Section 22 Registration as constructive notice of claim of ownership 15 U.S.C. § 1072
Title II – The Supplemental Register
Section 23 Supplemental register 15 U.S.C. § 1091
Section 24 Publication; not subject to opposition; cancellation 15 U.S.C. § 1092
Section 25 Registration certificates for marks on principal and supplemental registers to be different 15 U.S.C. § 1093
Section 26 Provisions of chapter applicable to registrations on supplemental register 15 U.S.C. § 1094
Section 27 Registration on principal register not precluded 15 U.S.C. § 1095
Section 28 Registration on supplemental register not used to stop importations 15 U.S.C. § 1096
Title III – Notice of Registration
Section 29 Notice of registration; display with mark; recovery of profits and damages in infringement suit 15 U.S.C. § 1111
Title IV – Classification
Section 30 Classification of goods and services; registration in plurality of classes 15 U.S.C. § 1112
Title V – Fees and Charges
Section 31 Fees 15 U.S.C. § 1113
Title VI – Remedies
Section 32 Remedies; infringement; innocent infringement by printers and publishers 15 U.S.C. § 1114
Section 33 Registration on principal register as evidence of exclusive right to use mark; defenses 15 U.S.C. § 1115
Section 34 Injunctive relief 15 U.S.C. § 1116
Section 35 Recovery for violation of rights 15 U.S.C. § 1117
Section 36 Destruction of infringing articles 15 U.S.C. § 1118
Section 37 Power of court over registration 15 U.S.C. § 1119
Section 38 Civil liability for false or fraudulent registration 15 U.S.C. § 1120
Section 39 Jurisdiction of Federal courts; State and local requirements that registered trademarks be altered or displayed differently; prohibition 15 U.S.C. § 1121
Section 40 Liability of United States and States, and instrumentalities and officials thereof 15 U.S.C. § 1122
Section 41 Rules and regulations for conduct of proceedings in Patent and Trademark Office 15 U.S.C. § 1123
Title VII – Importation Forbidden of Goods Bearing Infringing Marks or Names
Section 42 Importation of goods bearing infringing marks or names forbidden 15 U.S.C. § 1124
Title VIII – False Designations of Origin, False Descriptions, and Dilution Forbidden
Section 43 False designations of origin, false descriptions, and dilution forbidden 15 U.S.C. § 1125
Title IX – International Conventions
Section 44 International conventions 15 U.S.C. § 1126
Title X – Construction and Definitions
Section 45 Construction and definitions; intent of chapter 15 U.S.C. § 1127
Title XI – Repeal of Previous Acts
Section 46(a) Time of taking effect; repeal of prior acts 15 U.S.C. § 1051 (note)
Section 46(b) Existing registrations under prior acts 15 U.S.C. § 1051 (note)
Section 47(a) Applications pending on effective date of Act 15 U.S.C. § 1051 (note)
Section 47(b) Appeals pending on effective date of Act 15 U.S.C. § 1051 (note)
Section 48 Prior acts not repealed 15 U.S.C. § 1051 (note)
Section 49 Preservation of existing rights 15 U.S.C. § 1051 (note)
Section 50 Severability 15 U.S.C. § 1051 (note)
Section 51 Applications pending on effective date of the Trademark Law Revision Act of 1988 15 U.S.C. § 1058 (note)
Title XII – The Madrid Protocol
Section 60 Definitions 15 U.S.C. § 1141
Section 61 International applications based on United States applications or registrations 15 U.S.C. § 1141a
Section 62 Certification of the international application 15 U.S.C. § 1141b
Section 63 Restriction, abandonment, cancellation, or expiration of a basic application or basic registration 15 U.S.C. § 1141c
Section 64 Request for extension of protection subsequent to international registration 15 U.S.C. § 1141d
Section 65 Extension of protection of an international registration to the United States under the Madrid Protocol 15 U.S.C. § 1141e
Section 66 Effect of filing a request for extension of protection of an international registration to the United States 15 U.S.C. § 1141f
Section 67 Right of priority for request for extension of protection to the United States 15 U.S.C. § 1141g
Section 68 Examination of and opposition to request for extension of protection; notification of refusal 15 U.S.C. § 1141h
Section 69 Effect of extension of protection 15 U.S.C. § 1141i
Section 70 Dependence of extension of protection to the United States on the underlying international registration 15 U.S.C. § 1141j
Section 71 Duration, affidavits and fees 15 U.S.C. § 1141k
Section 72 Assignment of an extension of protection 15 U.S.C. § 1141l
Section 73 Incontestability 15 U.S.C. § 1141m
Section 74 Rights of extension of protection 15 U.S.C. § 1141n
Section 13403 Definitions 15 U.S.C. § 1141 (note)

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